E-Commerce and E-Business

Transaction partners include:

  • National and international freight companies to enable the movement of physical goods within, around and out of the country. For business-to-consumer transactions, the system must offer a means for cost-efficient transport of small packages (such that purchasing books over the Internet, for example, is not prohibitively more expensive than buying from a local store); and
  • Authentication authority that serves as a trusted third party to ensure the integrity and security of transactions.

Consumers (in a business-to-consumer transaction) who:

Firms/Businesses (in a business-to-business transaction) that together form a critical mass of companies (especially within supply chains) with Internet access and the capability to place and take orders over the Internet.

Government, to establish:

  • A legal framework governing e-commerce transactions (including electronic documents, signatures, and the like); and
  • Legal institutions that would enforce the legal framework (i.e., laws and regulations) and protect consumers and businesses from fraud, among others.
  • A robust and reliable Internet infrastructure; and
  • A pricing structure that doesn’t penalize consumers for spending time on and buying goods over the Internet (e.g., a flat monthly charge for both ISP access and local phone calls).

For e-commerce to grow, the above requisites and factors have to be in place. The least developed factor is an impediment to the increased uptake of e-commerce as a whole. For instance, a country with an excellent Internet infrastructure will not have high e-commerce figures if banks do not offer support and fulfillment services to e-commerce transactions. In countries that have significant e-commerce figures, a positive feedback loop reinforces each of these factors.22

Like this smiling tech support worker, you need to be both innovative and eager to please if you hope to get your online business off the ground.

eBay former logo

If you’re a business owner living in today’s technological age, your eye is surely on expansion through e-commerce. Whether you are the owner in question who is tech-savvy enough to build your own site, or a third-party Web page developer, there are 5 rough steps to keep in mind to ensure the success of your e-commerce endeavors.

E-Сommerce center logo

Navigation Through a Web-based E-Commerce

Web Sites are very important in the E-commerce world

Wikimedia Servers-0051 19

Not quite a physical shopping cart

Safe Practices for E-Commerce

1 Anita Rosen, The E-commerce Question and Answer Book (USA: American Management Association, 2000), 5.

2 MK, Euro Info Correspondence Centre (Belgrade, Serbia), “E-commerce-Factor of Economic Growth;” available from http://www.eicc.co.yu/newspro/viewnews.cgi?newsstart3end5; Internet; accessed 25 September 2002.

3 Thomas L. Mesenbourg, Measuring Electronic Business: Definitions, Underlying Concepts, and Measurement Plans.

4 Definition adapted and expanded from Emmanuel Lallana, Rudy Quimbo, Zorayda Ruth Andam, ePrimer: An Introduction to eCommerce (Philippines: DAI-AGILE, 2000), 2.

6 Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 4. Cf. Ravi Kalakota and Andrew B. Whinston, Electronic Commerce: A Manager’s Guide (USA: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., 1997), 19-20.

7 Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 4.

8 Breakdown of the International Data Corp.

9 “E-commerce/Internet: B2B: 2B or Not 2B?” (Goldman Sachs Investment Research, November 1999), v. 1.1, 16,68-71.

11 Kalakota and Whinston, 18-19.

12 Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 4.

13 To be discussed in the succeeding sections of this primer.

14 Kalakota and Whinston, 20-21.

15 TA Project, “E-commerce;” available from http://www.tab.fzk.de/en/projekt/skizze/ecommerce.htm; Internet; accessed 26 September 2002.

16 Traderinasia.com; available from http://www.traderinasia.com/classifieds.html; Internet; accessed 26 September 2002.

17 whatis.com, searchWebServices.com; available from http://whatis.com/

18 Cf. Kalakota and Whinston, 7-11.

19 Cf. Business Software Alliance, eCommerce and Developing Markets, 17-18.

20 For a more extensive discussion on convergence, refer to Edwin S. Soriano, Nets, Webs, and The Information Infrastructure.

21 Lallana, Quimbo, Andam, 13.

22 Adapted from the inputs and comments on this primer of Mr. Chris Coward.

23 Industry Canada, Canada’s Business and Consumer Site; available from http:// strategis.gc.ca; accessed 26 September 2002..

25 Lallana, Quimbo and Andam, 2.

26 Michael Chait, “Is the Dot Com Bust Coming to an End?” (July 8, 2002); available from http://www.Internetnews.com/bus-news/article.php/1381331; accessed 26 September 2002.

27 Reshma Kapadia, “What caused the dot-com bust?”; available from http://www.news24.com/News24/Technology/0,1113,2-13_1142765,00.html; accessed 26 September 2002.

28 Reid Goldscborough, “Viewpoint-Personal Computing: Forget The Dot-Com Bust, There’s Still Money To Be Made;” available from http://www.industryweek.com/Columns/Asp/columns.asp?ColumnId=881; accessed September 26, 2002.

29 whatis.com, searchEBusiness.com.

31 Lynda M. Applegate, excerpts form the E-business Handbook (The St. Lucie Press, 2002); available from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/tools/print_item.jhtml?id=3007&t=ecommerce; accessed 26 September 2002.

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34 Integrated supply chains enable distributors to link their suppliers with their business clients/customers.

35 Integrated buy chains enable distributors to link producers to consumers.

36 NetValue Research

37 Suganthi, Balachandher and Balachandran, “Internet Banking Patronage: An Empirical Investigation of Malaysia;” available from http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/jibc/0103_01.htm; accessed 26 September 2002.

38 McKinsey survey.

39 This section is best read in relation to the discussion on B2C.

40 To be included in Retail Forward’s Top e-retailers, the company should have generated at least 50% of its sales from direct-to-consumer (DTC) retail.

41 Cf. http://www.emarketer.com/news/article.php?1001447&ref=ed

42 CAUCE (Coalition Against Unsolicited Commercial E-mail); available from http://www.cauce.org. Accessed 26 September 2002.

43 Andrea Goldstein and David O’Connor, E-commerce for Development: Prospects and Policy Issues, (OECD Development Centre, September 2000); available from http://www.oecd.org/dev/publication/tp1a.htm; accessed 26 September 2002.

45 Noah Elkin, “Developing Countries Meeting e-business Challenge,” February 5, 2003.

46 According to 2003 figures of AMI-Partners, a research group on small enterprise market.

47 Most artisans are women living in very remote villages. Their being isolated may be why their crafts have survived.

48 Goldstein and O’Conner.

51 ITU, 1999.

52 Goldstein and O’Conner.

56 Emmanuel Lallana, Patricia J. Pascual, and Zorayda Ruth Andam, SMEs and E-commerce: The Philippine Case; Cf. SMEs and E-commerce: The Case of Indonesia, prepared for The Asia Foundation by Castle Asia

57 Adapted from the inputs and comments on this primer by Dr. Catherine Mann.

58 Nancy Hafkin and Nancy Taggart, “Gender, Information Technology, and Developing Countries: An Analytical Study,” June 2001.

60 For an extensive discussion of e-government initiatives, please refer to the primer on “EGovernment” by Patricia J. Pascual.

62 Department of Trade and Communications. “An Infocomms Policy for the Information Economy: A Consultative Paper,” December 2000.

63 Lallana, Quimbo and Andam, 14.

64 Lallana, Pascual and Andam; Cf. SMEs and E-commerce: The Case of Indonesia.

66 Goldstein and O’Conner.

68 Ibid., Cf. ITC, 2000.

One of the many challenges facing the countries in the Asia-Pacific today is preparing their societies and governments for globalization and the information and communication revolution. Policy-makers, business executives, NGO activists, academics, and ordinary citizens are increasingly concerned with the need to make their societies competitive in the emergent information economy.

The e-primers aim to provide readers with a clear understanding of the various terminologies, definitions, trends, and issues associated with the information age. The primers are written in simple, easy-to-understand language. They provide examples, case studies, lessons learned, and best practices that will help planners and decision makers in addressing pertinent issues and crafting policies and strategies appropriate for the information economy.

  • The Information Age
  • Nets, Webs and the Information Infrastructure
  • e-Commerce and e-Business
  • Legal and Regulatory Issues for the Information Economy
  • e-Government
  • ICT and Education
  • Genes, Technology and Policy: An Introduction to Biotechnology

These e-primers are also available online at http://www.apdip.net/publications/iespprimers

The primers are brought to you by UNDP-APDIP, which seeks to create an ICT enabling environment through advocacy and policy reform in the Asia-Pacific region, and the e-ASEAN Task Force, an ICT for development initiative of the 10-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations. We welcome your views on new topics and issues on which the e-primers may be useful.

Finally, we thank all who have been involved with this series of e-primers-writers, researchers, peer reviewers and the production team.

Будущее электронной торговли

Рынок e-commerce продолжит расти. По данным Nasdaq, к 2040 году до 95% всех покупок будут совершать в интернете.

Среди глобальных трендов в развитии электронной торговли стоит выделить:

  • осознанное потребление (экологичные перерабатываемые товары в противовес одноразовым),
  • бесшовный (омниканальный) шопинг,
  • внедрение дополненной и виртуальной реальности,
  • «невидимые» платежи и оплата по лицу.

Другими словами, магазины стремятся сделать процесс покупки не только максимально быстрым и комфортным, но еще и увлекательным. Это, помимо прочего, становится вызовом для классического маркетинга.

Как работают AR-функции в приложениях Amazon, Gap и других

Электронная торговля берет курс на персонализацию: за счет «умного» поиска и подбора товаров, персональных рекомендаций, онлайн-стилистов и прочих инструментов. ИИ сможет анализировать все ваши покупки и предпочтения, составляя личные рекомендации с учетом ваших особенностей. Продуктовые сети уже реализуют подбор товаров на основе генетического теста и базовых медицинских показателей.

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Подробнее о том, как будет развиваться онлайн-торговля продуктами и готовой едой — в материале РБК Трендов.

Еще один заметный тренд — гибридные форматы: когда офлайн-супермаркеты и розничные сети переходят в онлайн и открывают целые зоны для самовывоза или оформления покупок через интернет. Другой пример сочетания офлайн- и онлайн-формата — магазины Amazon Go: клиент может купить любой товар без касс и продавцов с помощью приложения и камер с распознаванием лиц.

Среди других трендов:

  • под давлением рынка цифровизацию постепенно воспринимают даже в консервативных сферах потребрынка, завязанных на офлайн-продажи — например, застройщики и автодилеры;
  • мировой рынок b2b e-commerce, который уже превышает обороты b2c, будет расти опережающими темпами, в среднем 17,5% ежегодно до 2027 года;
  • мобильные приложения вытеснят все прочие каналы онлайн-продаж — на помощь потребителям придут «умные» голосовые помощники, AR-приложения для примерок, а также оплата при помощи PayPass.

In the realm of E-commerce, there are two things that are very important: the shopping cart and security when processing transactions. Have you ever bought (or tried to buy) something from a site and had a hard time finding the shopping cart? Or have you had trouble editing the items in your shopping cart? These problems are big E-commerce no-no’s and something most sites do try to avoid. However, they do still happen. The shopping cart is something that, ideally, would be accessible and easy to find from any page on a website, and once you are looking at the items in your cart, it should be simple to modify the items (add or delete products). Another thing that E-commerce sites should do is ensure that their checkout page is in fact secure. When purchases are made online, most people use their credit/debit cards to pay for their items. With the number of people in the world who know how to hack computer systems or decrypt code, it is important that websites ensure the security of such important personal information. Without this security there would be virtually no way to protect yourself from credit fraud or identity theft. While there are still ways for people to access the information, it is much harder to access it from a secured site. There are a few ways to check a sites security including the «http://» section of a URL being green in color, the URL beginning with «https» instead of just «http», as well as the security certificates that most secure sites will post on their pages to advertise their security to their customers.

1. What is the process of evaluating a web site to improve the search site results?

2. What is a program that holds a buyer’s information?

3. What is a type of Web site that brings buyers and sellers together to facilitate transactions between them?

4. What is a special HTML tag containing information about a Web page?

5. What is a web site where potential buyers bid on an item?

6. What is a type of payment service accessed via the Internet which are made to make electronic payments to others?

7. What is E-commerce software that facilitates the creation of an online store?

8. What is a site that sells access to its online content?

9. What is a type of Web site that brings buyers and sellers together to facilitate transactions between them?

10. What is a conventional store with a physical presence?

11. A brokerage site is a type of web site that brings buyers and sellers together to facilitate transactions between them?

12. An online payment service is a type of payment service accessed via the Internet which are made to make electronic payments to others?

1. search site optimization
2. digital wallet
3. brokerage site
4. meta tag or online auction site
5. online auction site
6. online payment service
7. storefront software
8. subscription site
9. brokerage site
10. brick-and-mortar store
11. True
12. True

Procedures for Handling Electronic Financial Transactions

Learn to do it safely

There are different ways an e-commerce site can set up payment options, and it is important to understand what type of payment option is best for the nature of the site. Credit cards, debit cards, PayPal, Bill Me Later, and gift cards are the most common payment options used by e-commerce sites. Payment by credit/debit card is the dominant method. Businesses usually open an e-commerce merchant account to allow for these payments. For payment with credit, a buyer makes a transaction with the credit card where money is then transferred from the credit credit card company to the merchant account. For debit cards, money is simply taken from the checking account and transferred to the merchant account. Businesses pay fees to the banks for this service. A relatively new system is for consumers to use low-cost card-swipe devices that enable merchants to get by the higher rates when the card is not physically present. Airline and travel sites are some businesses currently taking advantage of this method.

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Virtual account numbers, smart cards and prepaid credit cards are all used to better improve the security and safety of both the transaction process and the account information of the card holder. These cards can be secured with a PIN and/or a one-time password (OTP) to decrease the chances of a hacker obtaining account information.

Driving Business through Meta Tags

Drive your search engine business through meta tags!

Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act

Getting to the top of Google results is important.

A banner ad

E-commerce facilitates organization networks, wherein small firms depend on “partner” firms for supplies and product distribution to address customer demands more effectively.

To manage the chain of networks linking customers, workers, suppliers, distributors, and even competitors, an integrated or extended supply chain management solution is needed. Supply chain management (SCM) is defined as the supervision of materials, information, and finances as they move from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. It involves the coordination and integration of these flows both within and among companies. The goal of any effective supply chain management system is timely provision of goods or services to the next link in the chain (and ultimately, the reduction of inventory within each link).29

There are three main flows in SCM, namely:

  • The product flow, which includes the movement of goods from a supplier to a customer, as well as any customer returns or service needs;
  • The information flow, which involves the transmission of orders and the update of the status of delivery; and

Figure 6. Old Economy Relationships vs. New Economy Relationships

Before the Internet was utilized for commercial purposes, companies used private networks-such as the EDI or Electronic Data Interchange-to transact business with each other. That was the early form of e-commerce. However, installing and maintaining private networks was very expensive. With the Internet, e-commerce spread rapidly because of the lower costs involved and because the Internet is based on open standards.25

Where and how does ecommerce take place?

Online shopping evolves and shifts daily. People shop from their computers, phones, tablets, and other devices. They patronize websites, visit social media pages, and participate in thriving virtual channels. Here’s an overview of three distinct methods of conducting ecommerce today.


Online transactions that take place on mobile devices are known as mobile commerce or “m-commerce.” With portable devices in the hands of consumers worldwide, it’s no wonder m-commerce is anticipated to account for over 43% of total retail ecommerce sales in 2023 (up almost two percent from 2022).

Many people now do their product research and online purchasing through their phones. This trend shows no signs of slowing, so it’s essential to optimize your online store for mobile.

Enterprise ecommerce

Enterprise ecommerce is the buying and selling of products to large companies or organizations. If a large business sells many different types of products or has multiple brand lines and transitions into selling online, then it is participating in enterprise ecommerce.

Social media ecommerce

Social media can help you market and promote ecommerce stores to a broad audience. Just as social media enables you to connect with friends and family, it also has the potential to attract customers to your business. Done well, social media marketing engages customers in an informal setting.

Social media can help you:

  • Attract new customers
  • Build brand awareness
  • Generate online sales

E-Commerce and E-Business

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